Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research en-US Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2581-5520 TREATMENT OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION: A REVIEW <p>&nbsp;<em>Helicobacter pylori </em>is a particular bacterium that has evolved to survive in the acidic environment of the human stomach. Currently, no single antibiotic can treat the infection, so multiple medications are needed for treatment. Two antibiotics given more than a few times each day for seven to fourteen days, together with acid-suppressing medications, are the standard recommended treatments. The purpose of this review was to conclude the treatment of <em>H.pylori </em>infection. Without standard triple therapy, which consists of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and PPI for the first five days, followed by PPI, clarithromycin, and tinidazole for the final five days, is the most frequently used course of treatment for clarithromycin-resistant <em>H. pylori </em>infections. Moreover, One of the first therapeutic regimens for the removal of <em>H. pylori </em>infection included bismuth-based therapy (bismuth salts, metronidazole, and tetracycline, each four times daily for two weeks with PPI), but the number of tablets taken daily and the associated mild side effects can have a negative effect on tolerance and compliance. Therefore, it is usually kept as a second-line treatment. Finally, rescue therapy (PPIs, Levofloxacin, and amoxicillin twice daily for 10 days) is a recently suggested treatment for <em>H. pylori </em>infection. This combination can cure about 80% of patients with <em>H. pylori </em>infection who have already tried one or more earlier treatments but failed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Haidari Said Rahatullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 6 4 1 5 10.31069/japsr.v6i4.01 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND AN IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GOKSHURADI CHURNA, AN AYURVEDIC POLYHERBAL FORMULATION <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The branch of traditional medicine constitutes Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. The knowledge of these traditional systems of medicine with the perspective of safety, efficacy, and quality will helps to the traditional legacy and also to rationalize the use of natural products in healthcare as well.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objective: </strong>The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate an <em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;antioxidant activity and quantification of phytochemicals of polyherbal drug, <em>Gokshuradi churna (G. churna)</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> An aqueous extract of <em>G. churna</em> of 10mg/mL concentration was used for the estimations of total phenols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins. Free radical scavenging activity in terms of DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of <em>G. churna</em> was carried out by the standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In this study the phytoconstituents such as flavonoids (69.11±5.31 mg/g quercetin equivalent), phenols (56.39±4.07 mg/g gallic acid equivalent), saponin (73.43 ± 3.41 mg/g diosgenin equivalent) and tannin (58.11±1.41 mg/g tannic acid equivalent) were noticed in<em> G. churna. </em>Among which saponin and flavonoids showed highest content of 73.43 mg/g and 69.11 mg/g respectively in <em>G. churna.</em> An antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining the DPPH radical scavenging concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>:&nbsp;79.47&nbsp;μg/mL; Standard IC<sub>50</sub>: 59.84 μg/mL), superoxide radical concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>:&nbsp;125.12&nbsp;μg/mL; Standard IC<sub>50</sub>: 91.57 μg/mL) and nitric oxide radical concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>: 244.85&nbsp;μg/mL; Standard IC<sub>50</sub>: 264.41 μg/mL) under&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;conditions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study established that the drug showed an effective IC<sub>50</sub> concentration for nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. It also scavenges DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant activity of the drug may be due to the polyherbal ingredients present in it. The antioxidant activity in terms of scavenging nitric oxide radical was significantly higher than the standard ascorbic acid and also its activity was concentration-dependent.</p> Chitra Subramani Srilatha Krishnamoorthy Ilavarasan Raju ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 6 4 6 11 10.31069/japsr.v6i4.02 NANOEMULSIONS BASED ON LINSEED OIL CONTAINING ENCAPSULATED ETHYL BUTYLACETYLAMINOPROPIONATE FOR REPELLENT APPLICATION <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Mosquito-borne diseases are a global problem that causes deaths every year. Using synthetic repellents as a form of protection against diseases caused by mosquitoes can pose a risk to both the environment and human health due to their toxicity and low biodegradability. The present work aims to develop nanoemulsion formulations for the co-encapsulation of clove essential oil and ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535®).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The formulations were prepared by the high energy method, thermodynamic stability tests of the nanoemulsions were carried out, the most stable formulation was characterized in terms of diameter, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency, morphology and rheology.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The most stable nanoemulsion had a diameter of 188 ± 2 nm, -39 ± 1 mV zeta potential and 0.118–1.120 polydispersity index. The encapsulation efficiency was 61.33 ± 0.84%. In terms of morphology, the nanodroplets were spherical and without aggregates, typical of stable nanoemulsions. The rheological study identified the formulation as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Therefore, the nanoemulsion containing clove essential oil and ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate was successfully obtained with stability characteristics, being promising as a topical nanorepellent with smaller amounts of synthetic active ingredient.</p> Louhana Moreira Rebouças Thiago Moreira Melo Maria Socorrro Pinheiro Silva Emília Maria Alves Santos Nágila M. P. S. Ricardo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 6 4 12 17 10.31069/japsr.v6i4.03 IN-SILICO ADMET STUDY AND MOLECULAR DOCKING OF TRIAZOLE- 3-THIONE DERIVATIVES TARGETING LIPOTEICHOIC ACID SYNTHASE IN GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Rapid global emergence of antimicrobial resistance led to the failure of many of the antibiotics available in the market. Among multi drug resistant Gram +ve bacteria, methicillin and vancomycin resistant, Staphylococcus aureus strains are leading causes of nosocomial infections involving skin, soft tissues and urinary tract. Therefore, search for new drug targets that are unique to gram positive bacteria is a promising strategy to design novel antibacterial agents. Recently, lipoteichoic acid, a bacterial cell wall glycopolymer, has emerged as a promising and novel target for antimicrobial action. The enzyme, lipoteichoic acid synthase (LtaS) has been recognized as a key enzyme in LTA biosynthesis.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong>In the present work, we designed triazole-3-thione based compounds and performed in- silico studies to predict and analyse some commonly used computational tools. The study involved assessment of drug likeliness, prediction and analysis of ADMET parameters by pkCSM and swissADME on the synthesized compounds. The molecular docking study was performed using autodock 4.2 targeting lipoteichoic acid synthase (LtaS) on PDB: 2W5S and interaction of the compounds and inhibition constant were studied.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Result &amp; Discussion: </strong>All test compounds passed drug likeliness and majority of the compounds had potential to act as enzyme inhibitor or as ligand for G-protein coupled receptors in bioactivity prediction study. The ADMET analysis suggested the compounds suitable for oral administration due to better permeability and intestinal absorption, high tissue distribution, substrate for CYP3A4, CYP2C19 inhibitor, less mutagenic, low MRTD, less hepatotoxicity and none of the compound had potential for fatal ventricular arrythmia. In Docking study, 11 compounds were found to have better affinity with the active site and were able to make stable complexes based upon binding energy data. The compound K24 having thiophene at 5-position and 3-chloro phenyl at 4-position of triazole-3-thione ring was considered as most active compound based on binding energy, inhibition constant value and H-bond interaction with active residue.</p> Manisha Malik Krishan Kumar Verma Rahul Kaushik Praveen Gaur Kanak Lata ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 6 4 18 28 10.31069/japsr.v6i4.04 ANTIOXIDANT, PHOTOPROTECTIVE AND THERMORESPONSIVE NANOEMULGEL BASED ON PLURONIC® F127 AND HYMENAEA COURBARIL EXTRACT <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the present work was to prepare a thermoresponsive nanoemulgel based on a natural extract extracted from the stem of <em>Hymenea courbaril</em> for photoprotective cosmetic application.</p> <p><strong>Significance: </strong>Topical photoprotection is restricted due to the short half-life of synthetic actives on the skin, which requires frequent reapplications in addition to presenting potential risks of side effects.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Initially, the <em>Hymenaea courbaril</em> extract was obtained and characterized in terms of total phenolic and flavonoid content. A nanoemulsion based on the extract was prepared and identified and incorporated into a Pluronic® F127 gel to form the nanoemulgel. The antioxidant and photoprotective activity of the nanoemulgel and the extract were determined. The sol-gel transition temperature of the nanoemulgel was identified by tube inversion method. The extract obtained showed a high value of total phenolics and flavonoids. The nanoemulsion containing the encapsulated extract showed values of zeta potential, diameter and polydispersion index compatible with colloidal stability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The nanoemulgel showed antioxidant and photoprotective activity with an SPF of 2.3 ± 0.1 and thermoresponsive with a sol-gel transition temperature of 23-24 °C, showing promise as a new cosmetic photoprotector that may contain a lower concentration of synthetic actives due to its SPF complementation attributed to <em>Hymenaea courbaril</em> stem extract.</p> Anna Júlia Santos Barros Raíssa Sales Bastos Maria Socorro Pinheiro Silva Caroline Goes Sampaio Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo Louhana Moreira Rebouças Emília M. A. Santos Rahul Kaushik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 6 4 29 35 10.31069/japsr.v6i4.05 AWARENESS ABOUT COVID-19 AND ITS VARIANTS AMONG AFGHANISTANI POPULATION- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Corona virus caused COVID-19 is an unusual, highly contagious infectious disease caused by recently identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a clinical threat and presented a major health crisis worldwide in the absence of a specific vaccine or antiviral drugs. Its severity increases due to its rapidly mutating genotype.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study is retrospective analysis awareness in Afghanistani population about COVID-19 and its different variants.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> For obtaining data a questionnaire on general knowledge about COVID-19 and its variants was prepared and distributed among the various classes of population in Afghanistan. The questions like the name, age, sex, education, province, COVID-19 vaccination status and some basic questions about COVID-19 and its variants etc were included to obtain their responses. Questionnaire was prepared in both English and Afghani language to penetrate the population knowledge. The data thus obtained was analyzed using basic statistical techniques for proper understanding of different aspects of awareness.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>Study reported that educated population of Afghanistan especially medical, nursing, pharmacy and other healthcare sectors were found to be well aware with COVID-19, its causes and prevention. Large educated pool of population about 41.5% did not received even a single shot of Covid vaccine the unusual reasons were God will save them, lack of time, money and more than 10% won’t believe in Covid. Prominent anti Covid vaccines administered to Afghanistani population were Covaxin, Covishield, and Johnson &amp; Johnson.&nbsp; Good thing is that with the technological advancements and internet facilities most of the population possesses basic knowledge about COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Since a significant large population did not receive even single shot of COVID-19 vaccination, this is an alarming situation because Corona is a rapidly mutating virus and its virulence will pose serious threats to mankind in future. Extensive study is required to find out the root cause of public negligence.</p> Mohammad Sharif Forqani Mohammad Naser Sabawoon Muhammad Shafi Sharif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 6 4 36 38 10.31069/japsr.v6i4.06